Vitamin a deficiency after gastric bypass
J Obes. 2011;2011. pii: 760695. Epub 2010 Sep 14.
Divisions of Cardiology, Nutrition and Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, 4949 Coolidge Highway, Royal Oak, MI 48073, USA.
Introduction. Few data are available on vitamin A deficiency in the gastric bypass population. Methods. We performed a retrospective chart review of gastric bypass patients (n = 69, 74% female). The relationship between serum vitamin A concentration and markers of protein metabolism at 6-weeks and 1-year post-operative were assessed. Results. The average weight loss at 6-weeks and 1-year following surgery was 20.1 ± 9.1 kg and 44.1 ± 17.1 kg, respectively. At 6 weeks and 1 year after surgery, 35% and 18% of patients were vitamin A deficient, (<325 mcg/L). Similarly, 34% and 19% had low pre-albumin levels (<18 mg/dL), at these time intervals. Vitamin A directly correlated with pre-albumin levels at 6 weeks (r = 0.67, P < 0.001) and 1-year (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the roux limb length measurement and pre-albumin or vitamin A serum concentrations at these post-operative follow-ups. Vitamin A levels and markers of liver function testing were also unrelated. Conclusion. Vitamin A deficiency is common after bariatric surgery and is associated with a low serum concentration of pre-albumin. This fat-soluble vitamin should be measured in patients who have undergone gastric bypass surgery and deficiency should be suspected in those with evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition.